Excerpted from The Age of Permanent Revolution: A Trotsky Anthology by Isaac Deutscher
At the beginning of the year 1901 the young Lev Davidovich Bronstein, who had not yet assumed the name of Trotsky, but was already in exile in Siberia, epitomized his revolutionary mood in an impassioned invocation to the twentieth century. Despite persecutions and inquisitions, he asserted, the revolutionary confidently knocks at the gate of history. To the mocking of the philistine for whom there is nothing new under the moon, the revolutionary who looks to the future replies:
Dum spiro spero! [Where there is life, theres hope!]... If I were one of the celestial bodies, I would look with complete detachment upon this miserable ball of dust and dirt.. . . I would shine upon the good and the evil alike. .. . But I am a man. World history which to you, dispassionate gobbler of science, to you, book-keeper of eternity, seems only a negligible moment in the balance of time, is to me everything! As long as I breathe, I shall fight for the future, that radiant future in which man, strong and beautiful, will become master of the drifting stream of his history and will direct it towards the boundless horizon of beauty, joy and happiness!...
The nineteenth century has in many ways satisfied and has in even more ways deceived the hopes of the optimist.
...It has compelled him to transfer most of his hopes to the twentieth century. Whenever the optimist was confronted by an atrocious fact, he exclaimed: What, and this can happen on the threshold of the twentieth century! When he drew wonderful pictures of the harmonious future, be placed them in the twentieth century.
And now that century has come! What has it brought with it at the outset?
In France--the poisonous foam of racial hatred [the Dreyfus Affair]; in Austria--nationalist strife...; in South Africa--the agony of a tiny people, which is being murdered by a colossus [The Boer War]; on the free island itself--triumphant hymns to the victorious greed of jingoist jobbers; dramatic complications in the east; rebellions of starving popular masses in Italy, Bulgaria, Rumania....Hatred and murder, famine and blood....
It seems as if the new century, this gigantic newcomer, were bent at the very moment of its appearance to drive the optimist into absolute pessimism and civic nirvana.
--Death to Utopia! Death to faith! Death to love! Death to hope? thunders the twentieth century in salvos of fire and in the rumbling of guns.
--Surrender, you pathetic dreamer. Here I am, your long awaited twentieth century, your future.
--No, replies the unhumbled optimist: You--you are only the present.